Bayburt, surrounded by Trabzon and Rize in the North, by Erzurum in the East, by Erzincan in the South and by Gumushane in the West, is among smallest cities in Turkey in terms of area and population.
Located by the Coruh river, which undoubtedly is a natural wonder, Bayburt’s history dates back to 3000s B.C. This ancient city, established by the Azziz, was invaded by the Cimmerians and the Scythians between 770-665 B.C. The Turkish city dating back to 2500 years fell under domination of the Scythians (Saka Turks).
It was a stopover destination of Bayburt, Genoese and Venetian caravans which developed rapidly during the reign of İlkhanids.
Marco Polo, who happened to pass by Bayburt on his way to Mongolia, noted that there were rich silver mines in the city. Mahmudiye and Yakudiye madrasahs were founded leading to rapid evolvement of Mevleviyeh in the city. Bayburt, where Ahi Institution was well-developed, was under the domination of Akkoyunlus for an extended period of time. The city was invaded by the Safavids in 1501, and then it was taken by the Ottoman forces from Kara Maksut-i Sultan, one of the emirs of Shah Ismail (October 1514).
The city was turned into a sanjak and given to Trabzon Governor Biyikli Mehmet Pasha. Bayburt castle gained significant importance during Iran Campaign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The city, exposed to raids of Shah Tahmasb in 1553, did not witness any significant events until XIX. century.
Bayburt was invaded by the Russians in 1878 and 1916, and was greatly ruined during these invasions.
Bayburt was a district of Erzurum until 1927 when it became a district of Gumushane. It was granted the status of province in June 21, 1989 by law no 3578.
Main means of existence in the city is stock breeding.
The city is convenient for stock breeding in the terrain, yet stock breeding in the meadow stands out. In recent years, livestock breeding is in significant development. Besides, number of families involved in beekeeping in districts and villages of the city shows massive increase, thus honey production is in gaining increase across the city.
Transportation to Bayburt is mainly by highway. Erzurum and Trabzon airports enables easier access to Bayburt from all around Turkey. Bayburt is a one and a half hour drive from Erzurum airport and a two and a half hour drive from Trabzon airport.